De Mons enters the Port-Royal basin, June In , at the end of the century in which Norsemen from Greenland had settled in and then removed themselves from North America, the Catholic pope stood before a council of bishops and preached the First Crusade. The pontiff, speaking from Clermont in France, had learned from the emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire that a new breed of infidel, the Seljuk Turks, had seized the Levant and refused to allow Christians to visit the holy places. He urged the warriors of Christendom to strap on their swords, take up the cross of their crucified redeemer, and hurry to the Holy Land to drive these non-believers from Jerusalem. The knights of France and other Christian kingdoms took up the papal challenge, and four years later the Holy City fell to them in an orgy of blood and righteousness. These Christian knights fought the Muslims of the Levant for material as well as spiritual gain. As they conquered the great cities of the eastern Mediterranean, they created European feudal states, especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem, to satisfy their lust for territory as well as to protect the holy places. For two centuries, they clung tenaciously to their Levantine principalities, but the Muslims refused to let them be. By the s, while the Christians gradually lost their grip on the eastern Mediterranean, Italian merchants supplying and transporting the crusading armies had opened a lucrative trade between southwestern Europe and the cities of the Levant.
The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that “Boso comes de Marchia”, last descendant in the male line of Boson [I], was killed in battle in . The Chronicon Gaufredi Vosiensis records that Audebert [IV] sold all his properties, including presumably the county of la Marche although this is not specified, to Henry II King of England before leaving for Jerusalem, dated to [ ] from the context . The later comtes de la Marche are shown in Chapter 4 of the present document.
The origins of Geoffroy, first ancestor shown below, are unknown. The same author also highlights the mention of a deacon at Charroux in [ ] named Sulpice, the name which Geoffroy gave to his son.
Put off by their clumsy machinations, Cartier refused to compromise.
The reconstruction of the family of the early Vicomtes de Brosse is uncertain. It is shown below without square brackets, but the difficulty is that, as so little information has been verified in primary source documents, it is a question of showing everything or nothing square bracketed. In some cases, reference is made in these old secondary sources to donations made on specific dates which, if correct, provide a factual basis for some of the information.
Until more primary source information emerges, it is recommended that the reconstruction should be treated with caution. Settipani suggests another possible interpretation: Beauchet-Filleau states that Bernard [I] was the son of Vicomte Ademar but cites no primary source . The primary source which confirms that this parentage is correct has not yet been identified.
The huge rapids above the village, the Frenchmen could see, blocked navigation farther upriver, at least in the ship’s boats.
Charlène de Mariés au premier regard, un mariage à l’église en préparation ?
The name of Geoffroy’s wife is not known.
The Natives he encountered here called their village Thadoyzeau, today’s Tadoussac, after the Montagnais word for “‘bosom,’ probably in reference to the two round and sandy hills located on the west side of the village.
Lawrence, Cartier encountered a fishing boat from La Rochelle, evidently lost, and directed it back towards the North Atlantic.
He resigned his county in , became a monk and went on pilgrimage to Rome where he died .
Biggar insists Fagundes then sailed westward from the Straits of Belle Isle “along the northern or Labrador shore of the Gulf.
They have no other dwelling but their canoes, which they turn upside down and sleep on the ground underneath.